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This injury limited his use of the left arm but did not affect his adventurous spirit. In the period between November and September , Livingstone explored the African interior, and was the first European to witness the magnificence of the Mosi-oa-Tunya waterfall, which he renamed Victoria Falls for Queen Victoria. He was one of the first Caucasians to make the 4,mile transcontinental journey across Africa. The purpose of his journey was to open trade routes, while accumulating useful information about the African continent.

In particular, Livingstone was a proponent of the establishment of trade and missions in central Africa. His motto is inscribed in the base of the statue of him at Victoria Falls: "Christianity, Commerce , and Civilization. He hoped to find a route to the Atlantic Ocean that would open up legitimate commerce and weaken the slave trade, since local chieftains would no longer need to cooperate with slave traders to get trade goods. He returned to Britain to try to garner support for his ideas, and to publish a book on his travels.

A man on a mission(ary)

In , Livingstone returned to England as a national hero and started a six-month speaking tour while preparing his book, Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa This sold widely and made him financially independent, allowing him to provide for his family and resign from the London Missionary Society.

Livingstone left for Africa again in March , with his wife and one son. Livingstone returned to Africa as head of the "Zambezi Expedition," which was a British government-funded project to examine the natural resources of southeastern Africa. The Zambezi River turned out to be completely unnavigable past the Cabora Basa Rapids, a series of cataracts and rapids that Livingstone had failed to explore on his earlier travels.

The expedition lasted from March until the middle of Livingstone was an inexperienced leader and had trouble managing a large-scale project. At Sesheke, Livingstone first observed the great Zambezi River and began the hazardous hike northward. From the beginning, this journey was riven with difficulties. For the first time, Livingstone contracted malaria as did most of his companions. Livingstone's wife, Mary, died on April 29, , of dysentery , but Livingstone continued to explore, eventually returning home in after the government ordered the recall of the expedition.

The Zambezi Expedition was cast as a failure in many newspapers of the time, and Livingstone experienced great difficulty in raising funds to further explore Africa. Nevertheless, the scientists appointed to work under Livingstone, John Kirk, Charles Meller, and Richard Thornton, did contribute large collections of botanical, ecological, geological, and ethnographic material to scientific institutions in the United Kingdom. Livingstone maintained exceptional popularity with the Royal Geographical Society and the British public.

While in England, he gave speeches about the need to take action against the slave trade.

David Livingstone | Biography, Expeditions, & Facts |

His publication, a book called Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambezi and Its Tributaries , brought private support to explore the watersheds divides between river drainage basins of central Africa. In March , Livingstone returned to Africa, this time to Zanzibar now part of Tanzania , where he set out to seek the source of the Nile River.

The map of Africa was slowly being charted. The source of the Nile seemed so close and even though Livingstone often thought he was on the verge of success, he continued to be puzzled for seven years. In , Livingstone found the Lualaba River, which feeds into the Congo River , and mistakenly thought this river was the "real" Nile. In Zanzibar, Livingstone saw Arab slave traders massacre between to Africans. Devastated, he returned to Ujiji.

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Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Rate this book Clear rating 1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars. Want to Read saving… Error rating book. To preach, heal and help the African, and not to give up his missionary purposes, was still the impelling motive of all his efforts. His equipment upon his return to Africa by way of Bombay was not as good as it should have been.

Many reverses met him. His helpers proved of little help; some of his people were ill behaved, and had to be dismissed; old scenes about Lake Nyassa haunted him and disappointed hopes preyed on his mind; the inhuman cruelties of the slave trade were a constant nightmare to him. For a time he turned his attention to the watershed question, but found many hindrances. It was at this time that Musa, with some followers, forsook him and reported the explorer dead. In spite of all this he pressed forward. His medicine chest, so essential to him, disappeared; he reached Lake Tanganyika; discovered Lake Moero; afterwards Lake Bangweolo; suffered greatly from sickness, and returned to Ujiji to find his goods all gone.

Hardships Indeed. The next two years, July, , to October, , were spent in a journey from Ujiji to the river Lealaba and return, and were perhaps the saddest years of his life. He beheld the thousand villages about which Moffat told, and which caused him to give his life to Africa. He, himself, preached to thousands and tens of thousands of natives. But his strength failed him in Feet sore from ulcers; teeth falling out through sickness; weary of body and sick of heart, he lay in his hut for eighty days, longing for home, now far beyond his reach. His sole comfort and help was his Bible, which he read through four times during this period, and upon the flyleaf of which he wrote these significant words: "No letters for three years.

I have a sore longing to finish and go home, if God wills. The Royal Geographical Society had sent out a search, but found him not. The Discoverer Discovered. Stanley to locate the explorer "at any cost.

The Life and Work of David Livingstone

Once he wrote, "No living man shall stop me. Only death can prevent me; but death, -- not even this.

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    Livingstone, I presume? It was a glad day for Livingstone. Letters and supplies were abundant and appreciated. He forgot his ailments and became overjoyed in this Good Samaritan act. Together the men spent four months exploring Lake Tanganyika. Stanley became a hero worshipper of his companion. Once he wrote, "I challenge any man to find a fault in his character The secret is that his religion is a constant, earnest and sincere practice.

    For, instead of returning with Stanley, as he well might have done and was urged to do, he made new resolve to locate the watersheds, secured new men and pressed into the interior. On March 19, , when fifty-nine years old he wrote, "My birthday! My Jesus, my King, my Life, my All. I again dedicate my whole self to Thee.

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    At every convenient place he would have his carriers stop and let him rest. April 29 was his last day of travel. He had reached the village of Chitambo, in Ilala, on Lake Bangweolo. Here, sick unto death, he made observations, carefully brought his journal up to date, drew maps and gave orders. How heroic was the spirit in him to the last! He rested quietly on the 30th; but at four on the morning of May 1,, the boy who slept at Livingstone's door wakened, beheld his master, and fearing death, called Susi.

    The sad, yet not unexpected truth soon became evident; he had passed away on the furthest of all his journeys, and without a single attendant. But he had died in the act of prayer, -- prayer offered in that reverent attitude about which he was always so particular; commending his own spirit, with all his dear ones as he was wont, into the hands of his Savior; and commending Africa, his own dear Africa, with all her woes and sins and wrongs, to the Avenger of the oppressed and the Redeemer of the lost.

    Words can never do justice to the noble course which his faithful servants, led by Susi, now took. They removed the heart from the body of their dead leader and buried it under a tree near where he died. They dried the body in the sun, tied it to a pole and after nine months' march reached the coast and shipped it to England. On April 18, , the remains were laid to rest, amidst greatest honors, in Westminster Abbey, London.

    Some Results. The news of Livingstone's death quickened the pulse-beat of the world and roused many thousands to accept his interpretation of his own efforts, "the end of the exploration is the beginning of the enterprise.